The Arctic is the region around the North Pole. It is neither a country nor a continent. It is an ocean known as the Arctic Ocean, which is surrounded by large continental land masses and islands. The central area of the Arctic Ocean is covered by ice throughout the year and most of the land in the region is ice . Also, they are covered with snow for most of the year.
Parts of Canada , Greenland, Russia, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the US are within the Arctic region. Although the Inuit have been traveling and exploring the Arctic region for thousands of years, primarily in search of food and supplies, the region was ‘discovered’ in the 1800s by European explorers who were searching for a new route from the Northwest to East.
The word arctic comes from a Greek word that refers to the constellation Ursa Major. The exact dimensions or boundaries of the Arctic region are not exact. Some sources claim that the region covers around 7 million square kilometers. In general, the southern limit of the region is considered the Arctic Circle. This is an imaginary line to the north.
Some impressive solar phenomena occur in the area, such as: the midnight sun (the sun never sets) and the polar night (the sun does not rise). The midnight sun occurs the longest day of the year, known as the summer solstice (typically June 21), while the polar night occurs on the shortest day of the year, the winter solstice (in general, December 21).